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CME: Therapeutic Updates, Best Practices, and Barriers to Care in the Treatment and Prevention of Kidney Transplant Rejection

Activity Description / Statement of Need:

In this online CME self-learning program:

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been increasing in prevalence over recent years, due in part to higher rates of obesity and diabetes.  ESRD necessitates one of two major treatment options: chronic dialysis or kidney transplantation, with dialysis often acting as a bridge to transplantation.  Treatment of ESRD represents an enormous burden to the healthcare system, costing the Medicare system approximately $26.8 billion in 2008.  Dialysis can also impinge significantly upon a patient’s quality of life.


The first kidney transplant was successfully completed in 1954, and it has now become the most common solid organ transplant surgery performed.  Induction immunosuppressive therapy involves the use of biologic agents administered prior to and for a relatively short time following transplant.  Guidelines from the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group provide recommendations for which agents should be used first- and second-line, but there is a significant variability in prescribing practices.  These differences in practice suggest the presence of a practice gap between clinical practice and the recommendations put forward by the KDIGO.


This program has been designed to bring healthcare professionals’ knowledge of the rationale behind treatment and prevention of kidney transplant rejection up to date.



  • Introduction, Disclosures
  • Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney transplant rejection
  • Symptomology, biomarkers, and diagnosis of kidney transplant rejection
  • Treatment of patients experiencing kidney transplant rejection
  • Barrier to optimal care in patients with kidney transplant rejection
  • Summary, conclusion, and best practice recap

Target Audience:

Healthcare professionals specializing in solid organ transplant surgery, transplant medicine, immunosuppression, and other providers who commonly encounter patients who have undergone kidney transplantation

This program is supported by  educational grants from Novartis.

Release Date: December 10, 2012 -- Expiration Date: December 10, 2014

Faculty: Renu Nathan, PharmD, BCPS


Learning Objectives

By the end of the session the participant will be able to:

  • Formulate a treatment regimen on a patient-specific basis considering comorbid conditions, likelihood of immunogenicity due to mismatched human leukocyte antigen profiles, and the occurrence of adverse events
  • Describe the appropriate steps to take when acute rejection is suspected* and apply them to patient cases
  • Identify the various treatment combinations that are employed for the prevention and treatment of kidney transplant rejection
  • Recall the recommendations that are in place within the current clinical practice guidelines for kidney transplantation
  • Differentiate between induction therapy, short-term, and long-term maintenance options* and apply them to patient cases



Faculty Disclosure and Resolution of COI

As an provider of continuing medical education, it is the policy of the ScientiaCME to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all of its educational activities. In accordance with this policy, faculty and educational planners must disclose any significant relationships with commercial interests whose products or devices may be mentioned in faculty presentations, and any relationships with the commercial supporter of the activity. The intent of this disclosure is to provide the intended audience with information on which they can make their own judgments. Additionally, in the event a conflict of interest (COI) does exist, it is our policy to ensure that the COI is resolved in order to ensure the integrity of the CME activity. For this CME activity, any COI has been resolved thru content review by ScientiaCME.

Faculty Disclosure: Reenu Nathan, PharmD discloses that she has no relevant financial disclosures.

Disclosures of Educational Planner:  Charles Turck, PharmD is an officer and part owner of ScientiaCME, LLC. ScientiaCME has received grants from Novartis, the commercial supporter of this program.

Commercial Support Disclosure: This program is supported by  educational grants from Novartis.


  • Read the learning objectives above
  • Take the Pre-Test (optional). Completion of the pre-test will help us evaluate the knowedge gained by participating in this CME activity.
  • View the online activity. You may view this is in more than one session, and may pause or repeat any portion of the presentation if you need to.
  • Take the post-test
  • Complete the activity evaluation and CME registration. A CE certificate will be emailed to you immediately.

Cultural and Linguistic Competence

System Requirements

Windows 7 or above
Internet Explorer 8
*Adobe Acrobat Reader
Mac OS 10.2.8
Safari or Chrome or Firefox
*Adobe Acrobat Reader
Internet Explorer is not supported on the Macintosh

*Required to view Printable PDF Version

Perform Pre-Test (optional)

Please take a few minutes to participate in the optional pre-test. It will help us measure the knowledge gained by participating in this activity.